vibhoothi Pada


Sutras 107 - 161

Dharana (concentration) is the ability to apply awareness to the object of meditation (desha bandha - fixing the mind on a place, object, point).

Dhyana (meditation) is the uninterrupted flow of the mind towards the object of meditation.

Samadhi is the state of awareness where the mind is unable to discriminate between itself and the object of meditation.

Samyama is the state of mind when dharana, dhyana, and Samadhi happen together (a state where the mind is fixed on the object and uninterrupted by any thoughts, unable to differentiate itself from the object of meditation). When the state of samyama is achieved, gradual conscious illumination happens. This higher state of mind should be applied on different planes (different planes are explained, and their results are discussed towards the end of the chapter).

These three steps of yoga (dhyana, dharana, Samadhi) are internal when compared to the previous five steps (Yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara). But these three stages (dhyana, dharana, Samadhi) are external when compared to nirbheeja samadhi (nirbheeja Samadhi is the ability of the mind to dwell in the Samadhi state without any external aids that were previously used, like mantra, sound, breath. Hence, they are external).

During the cycle of Vyuthana, Nirodha, Abhibhava, the moments (kshana) when the mind dwells in the Nirodha phase (Bhava) is nirodha parinama. When the mind is in the nirodha parinama phase (over a period of practice), latent impressions (Samskaras) are either pacified or cleared (Prashantha).

Ekagratha parinama

The transformation of the mind from being distracted by thoughts to an undistracted, single-thought phase is ekagratha parinama. But this single-pointed focus can still be directed towards either the thoughts or the process of meditation.

When the mind is liberated from the thoughts (cycle of Vyuthana, Nirodha, Abhibhava) and gains single-pointed focus (ekagratha), this phase of mind is Samadhi parinama (transition of the mind from the normal, thoughtful, analyzing nature to a state of uninterrupted flow towards the object of meditation).

Thus far, the characteristics (dharma parinama), symbolism (lakshana parinama), and states (avastha parinama) of transformation on Indriyas and boothas are explained.

Dharma parinama

The characteristic of the mind (Chitta Vritti) is to follow the thoughts, analyze, and judge them. This characteristic is transformed through the process of meditation to ekagratha parinama (transformation from distraction to single-pointedness is indicated here).

Lakshana parinama

When the mind analyzes the thoughts, the emotions attached to the thoughts are experienced both mentally and physically. This characteristic of the thoughts is transformed to nirodha parinama (the conscious effort to detach the mind from the thoughts appearing in the mind and focus it on the object of meditation is indicated here).

Avastha parinama

When the meditation further intensifies and lifts the mind from nirodha parinama to Samadhi, it is avastha parinama, the transformation of the mind from chasing thoughts to a thoughtless state.

Characteristics of dharma

Characteristics of dharma can be categorized as latent/peaceful, expressed/manifested, and unexpressed/unmanifested. For example, aggressiveness. Changes in the characteristics of dharma lead to transformation.

directing samyama

By directing samyama (Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi) towards the characteristics of these three states of transformation, one can gain knowledge about the past and present.

When samyama is practiced on the sounds (sabtha) one hears, a yogi can understand the meaning, objective, and embedded knowledge (samkara) in the sound. This enables the yogi to comprehend the sound language (ruta Jnana) of all living beings.

By directing samyama towards one's own Samskaras (latent impressions), a yogi gains knowledge of their past life (poorva jathi) and understands the cause from the past that has an effect in the present.

By directing samyama towards the notion (pratyaya), a yogi can understand and read other people's minds. The yogi comprehends the true intention behind the suggestions given or sought by the person, rather than the thoughts that arise in their mind.

When samyama is directed towards one's own physical body (kaya rupa), the visible characteristics (Sakthi) of the physical body are suspended (Sthambhae). As a result, the yogi appears disconnected (asamprayoga) and invisible (antardhanam) to others.

Etena sabdaadi antardhanam muktam. (By this, his sound, touch, etc., also become unperceivable to others.)

When samyama is directed towards one's actions (karma), both manifested (sopakrama) and unmanifested (Nirupama krama), a yogi can gain foreknowledge about their own death (how, when, where, etc.)

By directing samyama towards compassion and friendliness (Maithri), the quality or characteristic of compassion is strengthened.

By directing samyama towards strength, one's strength is further enhanced, similar to that of an elephant.

When samyama is directed towards the inner or flame light (aloka), a yogi gains knowledge of subtle, distant, and hidden aspects of nature.

By directing samyama towards the sun, one gains knowledge about the universe or universal knowledge (Bhuvana Jnanam)When samyama is directed towards the moon, one gains knowledge about the star system (astrology)

When samyama is directed towards the pole star (dhruva), one gains knowledge about its movement (astronomy)

When samyama is practiced on manipuraka chakra, one gains knowledge about the physical body (Kaya), its systems, and functioning (vyuha) (anatomy and physiology)

When the samyama is directed towards the vishuddhi chakra (kanda Throat Kupae – pit), one can transcend the feelings of hunger (kshuth) and thirst (pipasa)

When the samyama is practiced on koorma nadi (thymus chakra, located slightly below vishuddhi and above anahatha chakra), one gains steadiness.

When the samyama is directed towards the crown (sahasrara) and visualizes a flame there (moordha jyothishi), one gains the vision of siddhas (great, perfected, or enlightened souls)

When the samyama is directed towards intuition/intelligence, one gains knowledge on all subjects (sarva).

When the samyama is directed towards the heart, one gains conscious awareness/knowledge (chitta samvit)

Sutra 35: The existence of prakriti (nature/creation) is purely to give pleasure/experience to purusha (soul). The interaction between prakriti (seen/nature/sattva) and purusha (soul, seer, experiencer) is quite complex to perceive. The lack of understanding of this interplay of purusha and prakriti is what is called bhoga (experience).

Both purusha and prakriti are swartha (selfish) because each exists to fulfill their self-interest. Prakriti exists to give pleasure, and purusha exists to derive pleasure.

When the samyama is practiced on the concept of the interplay between purusha and prakriti, one gains purusha jnana (enlightenment/pure consciousness).

When the samyama is directed towards the relationship between the body and the sky, one gains the ability to become weightless (laghu thoola) like a cotton fiber and also attains the ability to fly in the sky (akasa gamanam).

enlightened state

When the yogi attains enlightenment/pure consciousness (purusha jnana), he obtains the following six siddhis as a result of the enlightened state:

Sutra 37: The aforementioned siddhis can become obstacles to Samadhi, therefore, they must be given up
if one wishes to progress in their spiritual pursuits.

As the yogi clears (works out / erases / overcomes) the karmas that create the bondage between the mind (soul) and body (saithilya), and gains proficiency and mastery over the movement of the mind, he attains the ability to enter another (lifeless) body (para kaya pravesha).By gaining mastery over the udana vayu (one of the five vital airs), a yogi can levitate over water, mud, and thorns.

By gaining mastery over the samana vayu, the yogi gains radiance around him. When the samyama is practiced on the relationship between the sky (akasha) and the ears (srothrendriyam), one's ability to hear (ears) attains divinity (referring to the sravana siddhi mentioned above).

Bahir kalpita Vitti – When one visualizes that the mind is outside the body (There is a meditation where you have to focus your mind on a point eight fingers away from your body), that process is called Maha videha dharana – great bodiless state visualization or kalpita videha dharana.

Maha videha is a state where the mind is permanently positioned outside the body, rather than the normal state of being internal to the body – Akalphita Videha Dharana. When the Samyama is practiced on visualizing Mahavideha (Referring to the explanation above), the veil around the spiritual light (Light body – Nirvana sarira) is lost (removed) (kshaya).

When the Samyama is practiced on the following five states:

A yogi attains mastery over the five elements (Air, water, space, earth, fire).

From mastering the pancha boothas, a yogi attains ashta siddhis like anima, garima, mahima, laghima, prapthi, prakamya, Easithwa, Vasithwa), special physical body qualities like beauty (rupa), charm (lavanya), strength (bala), diamond-like hardness (vajra samanana).

When the Samyama is directed towards the qualities of mind and senses, such as perception (grahana), natural form/structure (swarupa), ego (Asmitha), anvaya – ability to relate, arthavatha – ability to judge the utility, one gains mastery over the senses (indriya jaya).

From mastering the senses, one gains the following siddhis:

The ability to identify and distinguish the purusha and prakrithi and their characteristics is viveka Jnana. When that is obtained, a yogi gains all-encompassing supreme power and knowledge (omniscience) over all forms and knowledge in existence/creation.

A yogi who has attained all the above-mentioned siddhis and is dispassionate about those siddhis leads to the destruction of all elements of defects in him and leads to kailvalya (absolute liberation). When invited by beings of higher dimensions (celestial beings, Angels, Devas, etc.), a yogi should neither accept, feel proud of, nor desire such an invitation as it will cause an undesirable effect on the yogi.

When Samyama is practiced on the moment and its cycle, a yogi gains discriminative (viveka) knowledge (Jnana).

This viveka Jnana aids the yogi in perceiving all experiences in their totality and equality without being subjected to discrimination like class, creed, characteristics, or place.

This intuitive knowledge that was born out of discrimination is comprehensive of all things appearing at all times and has no sequence.

Liberation dawns on the yogi when there is equality and purity among the seen (prakrithi) and the seer (soul).